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- ShortScience.org is a platform for post-publication discussion aiming to improve accessibility and reproducibility of research ideas.
- The website has 1521 public summaries, mostly in machine learning, written by the community and organized by paper, conference, and year.
- Reading summaries of papers is useful to obtain the perspective and insight of another reader, why they liked or disliked it, and their attempt to demystify complicated sections.
- Also, writing summaries is a good exercise to understand the content of a paper because you are forced to challenge your assumptions when explaining it.
- Finally, you can keep up to date with the flood of research by reading the latest summaries on our Twitter and Facebook pages.

Comparing Rewinding and Fine-tuning in Neural Network Pruning

Renda, Alex and Frankle, Jonathan and Carbin, Michael

International Conference on Learning Representations - 2020 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Renda, Alex and Frankle, Jonathan and Carbin, Michael

International Conference on Learning Representations - 2020 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
This is an interestingly pragmatic paper that makes a super simple observation. Often, we may want a usable network with fewer parameters, to make our network more easily usable on small devices. It's been observed (by these same authors, in fact), that pruned networks can achieve comparable weights to their fully trained counterparts if you rewind and retrain from early in the training process, to compensate for the loss of the (not ultimately important) pruned weights. This observation has been dubbed the "Lottery Ticket Hypothesis", after the idea that there's some small effective subnetwork you can find if you sample enough networks. Given these two facts - the usefulness of pruning, and the success of weight rewinding - the authors explore the effectiveness of various ways to train after pruning. Current standard practice is to prune low-magnitude weights, and then continue training remaining weights from values they had at pruning time, keeping the final learning rate of the network constant. The authors find that: 1. Weight rewinding, where you rewind weights to *near* their starting value, and then retrain using the learning rates of early in training, outperforms fine tuning from the place weights were when you pruned but, also 2. Learning rate rewinding, where you keep weights as they are, but rewind learning rates to what they were early in training, are actually the most effective for a given amount of training time/search cost To me, this feels a little bit like burying the lede: the takeaway seems to be that when you prune, it's beneficial to make your network more "elastic" (in the metaphor-to-neuroscience sense) so it can more effectively learn to compensate for the removed neurons. So, what was really valuable in weight rewinding was the ability to "heat up" learning on a smaller set of weights, so they could adapt more quickly. And the fact that learning rate rewinding works better than weight rewinding suggests that there is value in the learned weights after all, that value is just outstripped by the benefit of rolling back to old learning rates. All in all, not a super radical conclusion, but a useful and practical one to have so clearly laid out in a paper. |

Better-than-Demonstrator Imitation Learning via Automatically-Ranked Demonstrations

Daniel S. Brown and Wonjoon Goo and Scott Niekum

arXiv e-Print archive - 2019 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.LG, stat.ML

**First published:** 2019/07/09 (1 year ago)

**Abstract:** The performance of imitation learning is typically upper-bounded by the
performance of the demonstrator. While recent empirical results demonstrate
that ranked demonstrations allow for better-than-demonstrator performance,
preferences over demonstrations may be difficult to obtain, and little is known
theoretically about when such methods can be expected to successfully
extrapolate beyond the performance of the demonstrator. To address these
issues, we first contribute a sufficient condition for better-than-demonstrator
imitation learning and provide theoretical results showing why preferences over
demonstrations can better reduce reward function ambiguity when performing
inverse reinforcement learning. Building on this theory, we introduce
Disturbance-based Reward Extrapolation (D-REX), a ranking-based imitation
learning method that injects noise into a policy learned through behavioral
cloning to automatically generate ranked demonstrations. These ranked
demonstrations are used to efficiently learn a reward function that can then be
optimized using reinforcement learning. We empirically validate our approach on
simulated robot and Atari imitation learning benchmarks and show that D-REX
outperforms standard imitation learning approaches and can significantly
surpass the performance of the demonstrator. D-REX is the first imitation
learning approach to achieve significant extrapolation beyond the
demonstrator's performance without additional side-information or supervision,
such as rewards or human preferences. By generating rankings automatically, we
show that preference-based inverse reinforcement learning can be applied in
traditional imitation learning settings where only unlabeled demonstrations are
available.
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Daniel S. Brown and Wonjoon Goo and Scott Niekum

arXiv e-Print archive - 2019 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.LG, stat.ML

[link]
## General Framework Extends T-REX (see [summary](https://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/1904.06387&a=muntermulehitch)) so that preferences (rankings) over demonstrations are generated automatically (back to the common IL/IRL setting where we only have access to a set of unlabeled demonstrations). Also derives some theoretical requirements and guarantees for better-than-demonstrator performance. ## Motivations * Preferences over demonstrations may be difficult to obtain in practice. * There is no theoretical understanding of the requirements that lead to outperforming demonstrator. ## Contributions * Theoretical results (with linear reward function) on when better-than-demonstrator performance is possible: 1- the demonstrator must be suboptimal (room for improvement, obviously), 2- the learned reward must be close enough to the reward that the demonstrator is suboptimally optimizing for (be able to accurately capture the intent of the demonstrator), 3- the learned policy (optimal wrt the learned reward) must be close enough to the optimal policy (wrt to the ground truth reward). Obviously if we have 2- and a good enough RL algorithm we should have 3-, so it might be interesting to see if one can derive a requirement from only 1- and 2- (and possibly a good enough RL algo). * Theoretical results (with linear reward function) showing that pairwise preferences over demonstrations reduce the error and ambiguity of the reward learning. They show that without rankings two policies might have equal performance under a learned reward (that makes expert's demonstrations optimal) but very different performance under the true reward (that makes the expert optimal everywhere). Indeed, the expert's demonstration may reveal very little information about the reward of (suboptimal or not) unseen regions which may hurt very much the generalizations (even with RL as it would try to generalize to new states under a totally wrong reward). They also show that pairwise preferences over trajectories effectively give half-space constraints on the feasible reward function domain and thus may decrease exponentially the reward function ambiguity. * Propose a practical way to generate as many ranked demos as desired. ## Additional Assumption Very mild, assumes that a Behavioral Cloning (BC) policy trained on the provided demonstrations is better than a uniform random policy. ## Disturbance-based Reward Extrapolation (D-REX) ![](https://i.imgur.com/9g6tOrF.png) ![](https://i.imgur.com/zSRlDcr.png) They also show that the more noise added to the BC policy the lower the performance of the generated trajs. ## Results Pretty much like T-REX. |

Tumor Phylogeny Topology Inference via Deep Learning

Erfan Sadeqi Azer and Mohammad Haghir Ebrahimabadi and Salem Malikić and Roni Khardon and S. Cenk Sahinalp

bioRxiv: The preprint server for biology - 0 via Local CrossRef

Keywords:

Erfan Sadeqi Azer and Mohammad Haghir Ebrahimabadi and Salem Malikić and Roni Khardon and S. Cenk Sahinalp

bioRxiv: The preprint server for biology - 0 via Local CrossRef

Keywords:

[link]
A very simple (but impractical) discrete model of subclonal evolution would include the following events: * Division of a cell to create two cells: * **Mutation** at a location in the genome of the new cells * Cell death at a new timestep * Cell survival at a new timestep Because measurements of mutations are usually taken at one time point, this is taken to be at the end of a time series of these events, where a tiny of subset of cells are observed and a **genotype matrix** $A$ is produced, in which mutations and cells are arbitrarily indexed such that $A_{i,j} = 1$ if mutation $j$ exists in cell $i$. What this matrix allows us to see is the proportion of cells which *both have mutation $j$*. Unfortunately, I don't get to observe $A$, in practice $A$ has been corrupted by IID binary noise to produce $A'$. This paper focuses on difference inference problems given $A'$, including *inferring $A$*, which is referred to as **`noise_elimination`**. The other problems involve inferring only properties of the matrix $A$, which are referred to as: * **`noise_inference`**: predict whether matrix $A$ would satisfy the *three gametes rule*, which asks if a given genotype matrix *does not describe a branching phylogeny* because a cell has inherited mutations from two different cells (which is usually assumed to be impossible under the infinite sites assumption). This can be computed exactly from $A$. * **Branching Inference**: it's possible that all mutations are inherited between the cells observed; in which case there are *no branching events*. The paper states that this can be computed by searching over permutations of the rows and columns of $A$. The problem is to predict from $A'$ if this is the case. In both problems inferring properties of $A$, the authors use fully connected networks with two hidden layers on simulated datasets of matrices. For **`noise_elimination`**, computing $A$ given $A'$, the authors use a network developed for neural machine translation called a [pointer network][pointer]. They also find it necessary to map $A'$ to a matrix $A''$, turning every element in $A'$ to a fixed length row containing the location, mutation status and false positive/false negative rate. Unfortunately, reported results on real datasets are reported only for branching inference and are limited by the restriction on input dimension. The inferred branching probability reportedly matches that reported in the literature. [pointer]: https://arxiv.org/abs/1409.0473 |

Regularizing Trajectory Optimization with Denoising Autoencoders

Boney, Rinu and Palo, Norman Di and Berglund, Mathias and Ilin, Alexander and Kannala, Juho and Rasmus, Antti and Valpola, Harri

arXiv e-Print archive - 2019 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Boney, Rinu and Palo, Norman Di and Berglund, Mathias and Ilin, Alexander and Kannala, Juho and Rasmus, Antti and Valpola, Harri

arXiv e-Print archive - 2019 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
The typical model based reinforcement learning (RL) loop consists of collecting data, training a model of the environment, using the model to do model predictive control (MPC). If however the model is wrong, for example for state-action pairs that have been barely visited, the dynamics model might be very wrong and the MPC fails as the imagined model and the reality align to longer. Boney et a. propose to tackle this with a denoising autoencoder for trajectory regularization according to the familiarity of a trajectory. MPC uses at each time t the learned model $s_{t+1} = f_{\theta}(s_t, a_t)$ to select a plan of actions, that is maximizing the sum of expected future reward: $ G(a_t, \dots, a_{t+h}) = \mathbb{E}[\sum_{k=t}^{t+H}r(o_t, a_t)] ,$ where $r(o_t, a_t)$ is the observation and action dependent reward. The plan obtained by trajectory optimization is subsequently unrolled for H steps. Boney et al. propose to regularize trajectories by the familiarity of the visited states leading to the regularized objective: $G_{reg} = G + \alpha \log p(o_k, a_k, \dots, o_{t+H}, a_{t+H}) $ Instead of regularizing over the whole trajectory they propose to regularize over marginal probabilities of windows of length w: $G_{reg} = G + \alpha \sum_{k = t}^{t+H-w} \log p(x_k), \text{ where } x_k = (o_k, a_k, \dots, o_{t+w}, a_{t+w}).$ Instead of explicitly learning a generative model of the familiarity $p(x_k)$ a denoising auto-encoder is used that approximates instead the derivative of the log probability density $\frac{\delta}{\delta x} \log p(x)$. This allows the following back-propagation rule: $ \frac{\delta G_{reg}}{\delta_i} = \frac{\delta G}{\delta a_i} + \alpha \sum_{k = i}^{i+w} \frac{\delta x_k}{\delta a_i} \frac{\delta}{\delta x} \log p(x).$ The experiments show that the proposed method has competitive sample-efficiency. For example on Halfcheetah the asymptotic performance of PETS is not matched. This is due to the biggest limitation of this approach, the hindering of exploration. Penalizing the unfamiliarity of states is in contrast to approaches like optimism in the face of uncertainty, which is a core principle of exploration. Aiming to avoid states of high unfamiliarity, the proposed method is the precise opposite of curiosity driven exploration. The appendix proposes preliminary experiments to account for exploration. I would expect, that the pure penalization of unfamiliarity works best in a batch RL setting, which would be an interesting extension of this work. |

The Reversible Residual Network: Backpropagation Without Storing Activations.

Aidan N. Gomez and Mengye Ren and Raquel Urtasun and Roger B. Grosse

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2017 via Local dblp

Keywords:

Aidan N. Gomez and Mengye Ren and Raquel Urtasun and Roger B. Grosse

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2017 via Local dblp

Keywords:

[link]
Residual Networks (ResNets) have greatly advanced the state-of-the-art in Deep Learning by making it possible to train much deeper networks via the addition of skip connections. However, in order to compute gradients during the backpropagation pass, all the units' activations have to be stored during the feed-forward pass, leading to high memory requirements for these very deep networks. Instead, the authors propose a **reversible architecture** based on ResNets, in which activations at one layer can be computed from the ones of the next. Leveraging this invertibility property, they design a more efficient implementation of backpropagation, effectively trading compute power for memory storage. * **Pros (+): ** The change does not negatively impact model accuracy (for equivalent number of model parameters) and it only requires a small change in the backpropagation algorithm. * **Cons (-): ** Increased number of parameters, thus need to change the unit depth to match the "equivalent" ResNet --- # Proposed Architecture ## RevNet This paper proposes to incorporate idea from previous reversible architectures, such as NICE [1], into a standard ResNet. The resulting model is called **RevNet** and is composed of reversible blocks, inspired from *additive coupling* [1, 2]: $ \begin{array}{r|r} \texttt{RevNet Block} & \texttt{Inverse Transformation}\\ \hline \mathbf{input }\ x & \mathbf{input }\ y \\ x_1, x_2 = \mbox{split}(x) & y1, y2 = \mbox{split}(y)\\ y_1 = x_1 + \mathcal{F}(x_2) & x_2 = y_2 - \mathcal{G}(y_1) \\ y_2 = x_2 + \mathcal{G}(y_1) & x_1 = y_1 - \mathcal{F}(x_2)\\ \mathbf{output}\ y = (y_1, y_2) & \mathbf{output}\ x = (x_1, x_2) \end{array} $ where $\mathcal F$ and $\mathcal G$ are residual functions, composed of sequences of convolutions, ReLU and Batch Normalization layers, analoguous to the ones in a standard ResNet block, although operations in the reversible blocks need to have a stride of 1 to avoid information loss and preserve invertibility. Finally, for the `split` operation, the authors consider spliting the input Tensor across the channel dimension as in [1, 2]. Similarly to ResNet, the final RevNet architecture is composed of these invertible residual blocks, as well as non-reversible subsampling operations (e.g., pooling) for which activations have to be stored. However the number of such operations is much smaller than the number of residual blocks in a typical ResNet architecture. ## Backpropagation ### Standard The backpropagaton algorithm is derived from the chain rule and is used to compute the total gradients of the loss with respect to the parameters in a neural network: given a loss function $L$, we want to compute the gradients of $L$ with respect to the parameters of each layer, indexed by $n \in [1, N]$, i.e., the quantities $ \overline{\theta_{n}} = \partial L /\ \partial \theta_n$. (where $\forall x, \bar{x} = \partial L / \partial x$). We roughly summarize the algorithm in the left column of **Table 1**: In order to compute the gradients for the $n$-th block, backpropagation requires the input and output activation of this block, $y_{n - 1}$ and $y_{n}$, which have been stored, and the derivative of the loss respectively to the output, $\overline{y_{n}}$, which has been computed in the backpropagation iteration of the upper layer; Hence the name backpropagation ### RevNet Since activations are not stored in RevNet, the algorithm needs to be slightly modified, which we describe in the right column of **Table 1**. In summary, we first need to recover the input activations of the RevNet block using its invertibility. These activations will be propagated to the earlier layers for further backpropagation. Secondly, we need to compute the gradients of the loss with respect to the inputs, i.e. $\overline{y_{n - 1}} = (\overline{y_{n -1, 1}}, \overline{y_{n - 1, 2}})$, using the fact that: $ \begin{align} \overline{y_{n - 1, i}} = \overline{y_{n, 1}}\ \frac{\partial y_{n, 1}}{y_{n - 1, i}} + \overline{y_{n, 2}}\ \frac{\partial y_{n, 2}}{y_{n - 1, i}} \end{align} $ Once again, this result will be propagated further down the network. Finally, once we have computed both these quantities we can obtain the gradients with respect to the parameters of this block, $\theta_n$. $ \begin{array}{|c|l|l|} \hline & \mathbf{ResNet} & \mathbf{RevNet} \\ \hline \mathbf{Block} & y_{n} = y_{n - 1} + \mathcal F(y_{n - 1}) & y_{n - 1, 1}, y_{n - 1, 2} = \mbox{split}(y_{n - 1})\\ && y_{n, 1} = y_{n - 1, 1} + \mathcal{F}(y_{n - 1, 2})\\ && y_{n, 2} = y_{n - 1, 2} + \mathcal{G}(y_{n, 1})\\ && y_{n} = (y_{n, 1}, y_{n, 2})\\ \hline \mathbf{Params} & \theta = \theta_{\mathcal F} & \theta = (\theta_{\mathcal F}, \theta_{\mathcal G})\\ \hline \mathbf{Backprop} & \mathbf{in:}\ y_{n - 1}, y_{n}, \overline{ y_{n}} & \mathbf{in:}\ y_{n}, \overline{y_{n }}\\ & \overline{\theta_n} =\overline{y_n} \frac{\partial y_n}{\partial \theta_n} &\texttt{# recover activations} \\ &\overline{y_{n - 1}} = \overline{y_{n}}\ \frac{\partial y_{n}}{\partial y_{n-1}} &y_{n, 1}, y_{n, 2} = \mbox{split}(y_{n}) \\ &\mathbf{out:}\ \overline{\theta_n}, \overline{y_{n -1}} & y_{n - 1, 2} = y_{n, 2} - \mathcal{G}(y_{n, 1})\\ &&y_{n - 1, 1} = y_{n, 1} - \mathcal{F}(y_{n - 1, 2})\\ &&\texttt{# gradients wrt. inputs} \\ &&\overline{y_{n -1, 1}} = \overline{y_{n, 1}} + \overline{y_{n,2}} \frac{\partial \mathcal G}{\partial y_{n,1}} \\ &&\overline{y_{n -1, 2}} = \overline{y_{n, 1}} \frac{\partial \mathcal F}{\partial y_{n,2}} + \overline{y_{n,2}} \left(1 + \frac{\partial \mathcal F}{\partial y_{n,2}} \frac{\partial \mathcal G}{\partial y_{n,1}} \right) \\ &&\texttt{ gradients wrt. parameters} \\ &&\overline{\theta_{n, \mathcal G}} = \overline{y_{n, 2}} \frac{\partial \mathcal G}{\partial \theta_{n, \mathcal G}}\\ &&\overline{\theta_{n, \mathcal F}} = \overline{y_{n,1}} \frac{\partial F}{\partial \theta_{n, \mathcal F}} + \overline{y_{n, 2}} \frac{\partial F}{\partial \theta_{n, \mathcal F}} \frac{\partial \mathcal G}{\partial y_{n,1}}\\ &&\mathbf{out:}\ \overline{\theta_{n}}, \overline{y_{n -1}}, y_{n - 1}\\ \hline \end{array} $ **Table 1:** Backpropagation in the standard case and for Reversible blocks --- ## Experiments ** Computational Efficiency.** RevNets trade off memory requirements, by avoiding storing activations, against computations. Compared to other methods that focus on improving memory requirements in deep networks, RevNet provides the best trade-off: no activations have to be stored, the spatial complexity is $O(1)$. For the computation complexity, it is linear in the number of layers, i.e. $O(L)$. One small disadvantage is that RevNets introduces additional parameters, as each block is composed of two residuals, $\mathcal F$ and $\mathcal G$, and their number of channels is also halved as the input is first split into two. **Results.** In the experiments section, the author compare ResNet architectures to their RevNets "counterparts": they build a RevNet with roughly the same number of parameters by halving the number of residual units and doubling the number of channels. Interestingly, RevNets achieve **similar performances** to their ResNet counterparts, both in terms of final accuracy, and in terms of training dynamics. The authors also analyze the impact of floating errors that might occur when reconstructing activations rather than storing them, however it appears these errors are of small magnitude and do not seem to negatively impact the model. To summarize, reversible networks seems like a very promising direction to efficiently train very deep networks with memory budget constraints. --- ## References * [1] NICE: Non-linear Independent Components Estimation, Dinh et al., ICLR 2015 * [2] Density estimation using Real NVP, Dinh et al., ICLR 2017 |

Stabilizing Off-Policy Q-Learning via Bootstrapping Error Reduction

Kumar, Aviral and Fu, Justin and Soh, Matthew and Tucker, George and Levine, Sergey

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2019 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Kumar, Aviral and Fu, Justin and Soh, Matthew and Tucker, George and Levine, Sergey

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2019 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
Kumar et al. propose an algorithm to learn in batch reinforcement learning (RL), a setting where an agent learns purely form a fixed batch of data, $B$, without any interactions with the environments. The data in the batch is collected according to a batch policy $\pi_b$. Whereas most previous methods (like BCQ) constrain the learned policy to stay close to the behavior policy, Kumar et al. propose bootstrapping error accumulation reduction (BEAR), which constrains the newly learned policy to place some probability mass on every non negligible action. The difference is illustrated in the picture from the BEAR blog post: https://i.imgur.com/zUw7XNt.png The behavior policy is in both images the dotted red line, the left image shows the policy matching where the algorithm is constrained to the purple choices, while the right image shows the support matching. **Theoretical Contribution:** The paper analysis formally how the use of out-of-distribution actions to compute the target in the Bellman equation influences the back-propagated error. Firstly a distribution constrained backup operator is defined as $T^{\Pi}Q(s,a) = \mathbb{E}[R(s,a) + \gamma \max_{\pi \in \Pi} \mathbb{E}_{P(s' \vert s,a)} V(s')]$ and $V(s) = \max_{\pi \in \Pi} \mathbb{E}_{\pi}[Q(s,a)]$ which considers only policies $\pi \in \Pi$. It is possible that the optimal policy $\pi^*$ is not contained in the policy set $\Pi$, thus there is a suboptimallity constant $\alpha (\Pi) = \max_{s,a} \vert \mathcal{T}^{\Pi}Q^{*}(s,a) - \mathcal{T}Q^{*}(s,a) ]\vert $ which captures how far $\pi^{*}$ is from $\Pi$. Letting $P^{\pi_i}$ be the transition-matrix when following policy $\pi_i$, $\rho_0$ the state marginal distribution of the training data in the batch and $\pi_1, \dots, \pi_k \in \Pi $. The error analysis relies upon a concentrability assumption $\rho_0 P^{\pi_1} \dots P^{\pi_k} \leq c(k)\mu(s)$, with $\mu(s)$ the state marginal. Note that $c(k)$ might be infinite if the support of $\Pi$ is not contained in the state marginal of the batch. Using the coefficients $c(k)$ a concentrability coefficient is defined as: $C(\Pi) = (1-\gamma)^2\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}k \gamma^{k-1}c(k).$ The concentrability takes values between 1 und $\infty$, where 1 corresponds to the case that the batch data were collected by $\pi$ and $\Pi = \{\pi\}$ and $\infty$ to cases where $\Pi$ has support outside of $\pi$. Combining this Kumar et a. get a bound of the Bellman error for distribution constrained value iteration with the constrained Bellman operator $T^{\Pi}$: $\lim_{k \rightarrow \infty} \mathbb{E}_{\rho_0}[\vert V^{\pi_k}(s)- V^{*}(s)] \leq \frac{\gamma}{(1-\gamma^2)} [C(\Pi) \mathbb{E}_{\mu}[\max_{\pi \in \Pi}\mathbb{E}_{\pi}[\delta(s,a)] + \frac{1-\gamma}{\gamma}\alpha(\Pi) ] ]$, where $\delta(s,a)$ is the Bellman error. This presents the inherent batch RL trade-off between keeping policies close to the behavior policy of the batch (captured by $C(\Pi)$ and keeping $\Pi$ sufficiently large (captured by $\alpha(\Pi)$). It is finally proposed to use support sets to construct $\Pi$, that is $\Pi_{\epsilon} = \{\pi \vert \pi(a \vert s)=0 \text{ whenever } \beta(a \vert s) < \epsilon \}$. This amounts to the set of all policies that place probability on all non-negligible actions of the behavior policy. For this particular choice of $\Pi = \Pi_{\epsilon}$ the concentrability coefficient can be bounded. **Algorithm**: The algorithm has an actor critic style, where the Q-value to update the policy is taken to be the minimum over the ensemble. The support constraint to place at least some probability mass on every non negligible action from the batch is enforced via sampled MMD. The proposed algorithm is a member of the policy regularized algorithms as the policy is updated to optimize: $\pi_{\Phi} = \max_{\pi} \mathbb{E}_{s \sim B} \mathbb{E}_{a \sim \pi(\cdot \vert s)} [min_{j = 1 \dots, k} Q_j(s,a)] s.t. \mathbb{E}_{s \sim B}[MMD(D(s), \pi(\cdot \vert s))] \leq \epsilon$ The Bellman target to update the Q-functions is computed as the convex combination of minimum and maximum of the ensemble. **Experiments** The experiments use the Mujoco environments Halfcheetah, Walker, Hopper and Ant. Three scenarios of batch collection, always consisting of 1Mio. samples, are considered: - completely random behavior policy - partially trained behavior policy - optimal policy as behavior policy The experiments confirm that BEAR outperforms other off-policy methods like BCQ or KL-control. The ablations show further that the choice of MMD is crucial as it is sometimes on par and sometimes substantially better than choosing KL-divergence. |

Understanding deep learning requires rethinking generalization

Chiyuan Zhang and Samy Bengio and Moritz Hardt and Benjamin Recht and Oriol Vinyals

arXiv e-Print archive - 2016 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.LG

**First published:** 2016/11/10 (3 years ago)

**Abstract:** Despite their massive size, successful deep artificial neural networks can
exhibit a remarkably small difference between training and test performance.
Conventional wisdom attributes small generalization error either to properties
of the model family, or to the regularization techniques used during training.
Through extensive systematic experiments, we show how these traditional
approaches fail to explain why large neural networks generalize well in
practice. Specifically, our experiments establish that state-of-the-art
convolutional networks for image classification trained with stochastic
gradient methods easily fit a random labeling of the training data. This
phenomenon is qualitatively unaffected by explicit regularization, and occurs
even if we replace the true images by completely unstructured random noise. We
corroborate these experimental findings with a theoretical construction showing
that simple depth two neural networks already have perfect finite sample
expressivity as soon as the number of parameters exceeds the number of data
points as it usually does in practice.
We interpret our experimental findings by comparison with traditional models.
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Chiyuan Zhang and Samy Bengio and Moritz Hardt and Benjamin Recht and Oriol Vinyals

arXiv e-Print archive - 2016 via Local arXiv

Keywords: cs.LG

[link]
This paper deals with the question what / how exactly CNNs learn, considering the fact that they usually have more trainable parameters than data points on which they are trained. When the authors write "deep neural networks", they are talking about Inception V3, AlexNet and MLPs. ## Key contributions * Deep neural networks easily fit random labels (achieving a training error of 0 and a test error which is just randomly guessing labels as expected). $\Rightarrow$Those architectures can simply brute-force memorize the training data. * Deep neural networks fit random images (e.g. Gaussian noise) with 0 training error. The authors conclude that VC-dimension / Rademacher complexity, and uniform stability are bad explanations for generalization capabilities of neural networks * The authors give a construction for a 2-layer network with $p = 2n+d$ parameters - where $n$ is the number of samples and $d$ is the dimension of each sample - which can easily fit any labeling. (Finite sample expressivity). See section 4. ## What I learned * Any measure $m$ of the generalization capability of classifiers $H$ should take the percentage of corrupted labels ($p_c \in [0, 1]$, where $p_c =0$ is a perfect labeling and $p_c=1$ is totally random) into account: If $p_c = 1$, then $m()$ should be 0, too, as it is impossible to learn something meaningful with totally random labels. * We seem to have built models which work well on image data in general, but not "natural" / meaningful images as we thought. ## Funny > deep neural nets remain mysterious for many reasons > Note that this is not exactly simple as the kernel matrix requires 30GB to store in memory. Nonetheless, this system can be solved in under 3 minutes in on a commodity workstation with 24 cores and 256 GB of RAM with a conventional LAPACK call. ## See also * [Deep Nets Don't Learn Via Memorization](https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rJv6ZgHYg) |

On Using Very Large Target Vocabulary for Neural Machine Translation

Jean, Sébastien and Cho, KyungHyun and Memisevic, Roland and Bengio, Yoshua

Association for Computational Linguistics - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Jean, Sébastien and Cho, KyungHyun and Memisevic, Roland and Bengio, Yoshua

Association for Computational Linguistics - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
TLDR; The authors propose an importance-sampling approach to deal with large vocabularies in NMT models. During training, the corpus is partitioned, and for each partition only target words occurring in that partition are chosen. To improve decoding speed over the full vocabulary, the authors build a dictionary mapping from source sentence to potential target vocabulary. The authors evaluate their approach on standard MT tasks and perform better than the baseline models with smaller vocabulary. #### Key Points: - Computing partition function is the bottleneck. Use sampling-based approach. - Dealing with large vocabulary during training is separate from dealing with large vocab during decoding. Training is handled with importance sampling. Decoding is handled with source-based candidate list. - Decoding with candidate list takes around 0.12s (0.05) per token on CPU (GPU). Without target list 0.8s (0.25s). - Issue: Candidate list is depended on source sentence, so it must be re-computed for each sentence. - Reshuffling the data set is expensive as new partitions need to be calculated (not necessary, but improved scores). #### Notes: - How is the corpus partitioned? What's the effect of the partitioning strategy? - The authors say that they replace UNK tokens using "another word alignment model" but don't go into detail what this is. The results show that doing this results in much larger score bump than increasing the vocab does. (The authors do this for all comparison models though). - Reshuffling the dataset also results in a significant performance bump, but this operation is expensive. IMO the authors should take all these into account when reporting performance numbers. A single training update may be a lot faster, but the setup time increases. I'd would've like to see the authors assign a global time budget to train/test and then compare the models based on that. - The authors only briefly mentioned that re-building the target vocab for each source sentence is an issue and how they solve it, no details given. |

Convex Learning with Invariances

Teo, Choon Hui and Globerson, Amir and Roweis, Sam T. and Smola, Alexander J.

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2007 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Teo, Choon Hui and Globerson, Amir and Roweis, Sam T. and Smola, Alexander J.

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2007 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
Teo et al. propose a convex, robust learning framework allowing to integrate invariances into SVM training. In particular, they consider a set of valid transformations and define the cost of a training sample (i.e., pair of data and label) as the loss under the worst case transformation – this definition is very similar to robust optimization or adversarial training. Then, a convex upper bound on this cost is derived. Given, that the worst case transformation can be found efficiently, two different algorithms for minimizing this loss are proposed and discussed. The framework is evaluated on MNIST. However, considering error rate, the approach does not outperform data augmentation significantly (here, data augmentation means adding “virtual, i.e., transformed, samples to the training set). However, the proposed method seems to find sparser solutions, requiring less support vectors. Also find this summary at [davidstutz.de](https://davidstutz.de/category/reading/). |

Semi-supervised Learning with Ladder Networks

Rasmus, Antti and Berglund, Mathias and Honkala, Mikko and Valpola, Harri and Raiko, Tapani

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

Rasmus, Antti and Berglund, Mathias and Honkala, Mikko and Valpola, Harri and Raiko, Tapani

Neural Information Processing Systems Conference - 2015 via Local Bibsonomy

Keywords: dblp

[link]
This paper describes a learning algorithm for deep neural networks that can be understood as an extension of stacked denoising autoencoders. In short, instead of reconstructing one layer at a time and greedily stacking, a unique unsupervised objective involving the reconstruction of all layers is optimized jointly by all parameters (with the relative importance of each layer cost controlled by hyper-parameters). In more details: * The encoding (forward propagation) adds noise (Gaussian) at all layers, while decoding is noise-free. * The target at each layer is the result of noise-less forward propagation. * Direct connections (also known as skip-connections) between a layer and its decoded reconstruction are used. The resulting encoder/decoder architecture thus ressembles a ladder (hence the name Ladder Networks). * Miniature neural networks with a single hidden unit and skip-connections are used to decode the left and top layers into a reconstruction. Each network is applied element-wise (without parameter sharing across reconstructed units). * The unsupervised objective is combined with a supervised objective, corresponding to the regular negative class log-likelihood objective (using an output softmax layer). Two losses are used for each input/target pair: one based on the noise-free forward propagation (which also provides the target of the denoising objective) and one with the noise added (which also corresponds to the encoding stage of the unsupervised autoencoder objective). Batch normalization is used to train the network. Since the model combines unsupervised and supervised learning, it can be used for semi-supervised learning, where unlabeled examples can be used to update the network using the unsupervised objective only. State of the art results in the semi-supervised setting are presented, for both the MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets. #### My two cents What I find most exciting about this paper is its performance. On MNIST, with only 100 labeled examples, it achieves 1.13% error! That is essentially the performance of stacked denoising autoencoders, trained on the entire training set (though that was before ReLUs and batch normalization, which this paper uses)! This confirms a current line of thought in Deep Learning (DL) that, while recent progress in DL applied on large labeled datasets does not rely on any unsupervised learning (unlike at the "beginning" of DL in the mid 2000s), unsupervised learning might instead be crucial for success in low-labeled data regime, in the semi-supervised setting. Unfortunately, there is one little issue in the experiments, disclosed by the authors: while they used few labeled examples for training, model selection did use all 10k labels in the validation set. This is of course unrealistic. But model selection in the low data regime is arguably, in itself, an open problem. So I like to think that this doesn't invalidate the progress made in this paper, and only suggests that some research needs to be done on doing effective hyper-parameter search with a small validation set. Generally, I really hope this paper will stimulate more research on DL methods to the specific case of small labeled dataset / large unlabeled dataset. While this isn't a problem that is as "flashy" as tasks such as the ImageNet Challenge which comes with lots of labeled data, I think this is a crucial research direction for AI in general. Indeed, it seems naive to me to expect that we will be able to collect large labeled dataset for each and every task, on our way to real AI. |

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