Liu et al. propose randomizing neural networks, implicitly learning an ensemble of models, to defend against adversarial attacks. In particular, they introduce Gaussian noise layers before regular convolutional layers. The noise can be seen as additional parameter of the model. During training, noise is randomly added. During testing, the model is evaluated on a single testing input using multiple random noise vectors; this essentially corresponds to an ensemble of different models (parameterized by the different noise vectors). Mathemtically, the authors provide two interesting interpretations. First, they argue that training essentially minimizes an upper bound of the (noisy) inference loss. Second, they show that their approach is equivalent to Lipschitz regularization .  M. Hein, M. Andriushchenko. Formal guarantees on the robustness of a classifier against adversarial manipulation. ArXiv:1705.08475, 2017. Also view this summary at [davidstutz.de](https://davidstutz.de/category/reading/).