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The last two years have seen a number of improvements in the field of language model pretraining, and BERT  Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers  is the most recent entry into this canon. The general problem posed by language model pretraining is: can we leverage huge amounts of raw text, which aren’t labeled for any specific classification task, to help us train better models for supervised language tasks (like translation, question answering, logical entailment, etc)? Mechanically, this works by either 1) training word embeddings and then using those embeddings as input feature representations for supervised models, or 2) treating the problem as a transfer learning problem, and finetune to a supervised task  similar to how you’d finetune a model trained on ImageNet by carrying over parameters, and then training on your new task. Even though the text we’re learning on is strictly speaking unsupervised (lacking a supervised label), we need to design a task on which we calculate gradients in order to train our representations. For unsupervised language modeling, that task is typically structured as predicting a word in a sequence given prior words in that sequence. Intuitively, in order for a model to do a good job at predicting the word that comes next in a sentence, it needs to have learned patterns about language, both on grammatical and semantic levels. A notable change recently has been the shift from learning unconditional word vectors (where the word’s representation is the same globally) to contextualized ones, where the representation of the word is dependent on the sentence context it’s found in. All the baselines discussed here are of this second type. The two main baselines that the BERT model compares itself to are OpenAI’s GPT, and Peters et al’s ELMo. The GPT model uses a selfattentionbased Transformer architecture, going through each word in the sequence, and predicting the next word by calculating an attentionweighted representation of all prior words. (For those who aren’t familiar, attention works by multiplying a “query” vector with every word in a variablelength sequence, and then putting the outputs of those multiplications into a softmax operator, which inherently gets you a weighting scheme that adds to one). ELMo uses models that gather context in both directions, but in a fairly simple way: it learns one deep LSTM that goes from left to right, predicting word k using words 0k1, and a second LSTM that goes from right to left, predicting word k using words k+1 onward. These two predictions are combined (literally: just summed together) to get a representation for the word at position k. https://i.imgur.com/2329e3L.png BERT differs from prior work in this area in several small ways, but one primary one: instead of representing a word using only information from words before it, or a simple sum of prior information and subsequent information, it uses the full context from before and after the word in each of its multiple layers. It also uses an attentionbased Transformer structure, but instead of incorporating just prior context, it pulls in information from the full sentence. To allow for a model that actually uses both directions of context at a time in its unsupervised prediction task, the authors of BERT slightly changed the nature of that task: it replaces the word being predicted with the “mask” token, so that even with multiple layers of context aggregation on both sides, the model doesn’t have any way of knowing what the token is. By contrast, if it weren’t masked, after the first layer of context aggregation, the representations of other words in the sequence would incorporate information about the predicted word k, making it trivial, if another layer were applied on top of that first one, for the model to directly have access to the value it’s trying to predict. This problem can either be solved by using multiple layers, each of which can only see prior context (like GPT), by learning fully separate LR and RL models, and combining them at the final layer (like ELMo) or by masking tokens, and predicting the value of the masked tokens using the full remainder of the context. This task design crucially allows for a multilayered bidirectional architecture, and consequently a much richer representation of context in each word’s pretrained representation. BERT demonstrates dramatic improvements over prior work when fine tuned on a small amount of supervised data, suggesting that this change added substantial value. 
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Spatial Pyramid Pooling (SPP) is a technique which allows Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to use input images of any size, not only $224\text{px} \times 224\text{px}$ as most architectures do. (However, there is a lower bound for the size of the input image). ## Idea * Convolutional layers operate on any size, but fully connected layers need fixedsize inputs * Solution: * Add a new SPP layer on top of the last convolutional layer, before the fully connected layer * Use an approach similar to bag of words (BoW), but maintain the spatial information. The BoW approach is used for text classification, where the order of the words is discarded and only the number of occurences is kept. * The SPP layer operates on each feature map independently. * The output of the SPP layer is of dimension $k \cdot M$, where $k$ is the number of feature maps the SPP layer got as input and $M$ is the number of bins. Example: We could use spatial pyramid pooling with 21 bins: * 1 bin which is the max of the complete feature map * 4 bins which divide the image into 4 regions of equal size (depending on the input size) and rectangular shape. Each bin gets the max of its region. * 16 bins which divide the image into 4 regions of equal size (depending on the input size) and rectangular shape. Each bin gets the max of its region. ## Evaluation * Pascal VOC 2007, Caltech101: stateoftheart, without finetuning * ImageNet 2012: Boosts accuracy for various CNN architectures * ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) 2014: Rank #2 ## Code The paper claims that the code is [here](http://research.microsoft.com/enus/um/people/kahe/), but this seems not to be the case any more. People have tried to implement it with Tensorflow ([1](http://stackoverflow.com/q/40913794/562769), [2](https://github.com/fchollet/keras/issues/2080), [3](https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/issues/6011)), but by now no public working implementation is available. ## Related papers * [Atrous Convolution](https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.00915)
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This paper presents a recurrent neural network architecture in which some of the recurrent weights dynamically change during the forward pass, using a hebbianlike rule. They correspond to the matrices $A(t)$ in the figure below: ![Fast weights RNN figure](http://i.imgur.com/DCznSf4.png) These weights $A(t)$ are referred to as *fast weights*. Comparatively, the recurrent weights $W$ are referred to as slow weights, since they are only changing due to normal training and are otherwise kept constant at test time. More specifically, the proposed fast weights RNN compute a series of hidden states $h(t)$ over time steps $t$, but, unlike regular RNNs, the transition from $h(t)$ to $h(t+1)$ consists of multiple ($S$) recurrent layers $h_1(t+1), \dots, h_{S1}(t+1), h_S(t+1)$, defined as follows: $$h_{s+1}(t+1) = f(W h(t) + C x(t) + A(t) h_s(t+1))$$ where $f$ is an elementwise nonlinearity such as the ReLU activation. The next hidden state $h(t+1)$ is simply defined as the last "inner loop" hidden state $h_S(t+1)$, before moving to the next time step. As for the fast weights $A(t)$, they too change between time steps, using the hebbianlike rule: $$A(t+1) = \lambda A(t) + \eta h(t) h(t)^T$$ where $\lambda$ acts as a decay rate (to partially forget some of what's in the past) and $\eta$ as the fast weight's "learning rate" (not to be confused with the learning rate used during backprop). Thus, the role played by the fast weights is to rapidly adjust to the recent hidden states and remember the recent past. In fact, the authors show an explicit relation between these fast weights and memoryaugmented architectures that have recently been popular. Indeed, by recursively applying and expending the equation for the fast weights, one obtains $$A(t) = \eta \sum_{\tau = 1}^{\tau = t1}\lambda^{t\tau1} h(\tau) h(\tau)^T$$ *(note the difference with Equation 3 of the paper... I think there was a typo)* which implies that when computing the $A(t) h_s(t+1)$ term in the expression to go from $h_s(t+1)$ to $h_{s+1}(t+1)$, this term actually corresponds to $$A(t) h_s(t+1) = \eta \sum_{\tau =1}^{\tau = t1} \lambda^{t\tau1} h(\tau) (h(\tau)^T h_s(t+1))$$ i.e. $A(t) h_s(t+1)$ is a weighted sum of all previous hidden states $h(\tau)$, with each hidden states weighted by an "attention weight" $h(\tau)^T h_s(t+1)$. The difference with many recent memoryaugmented architectures is thus that the attention weights aren't computed using a softmax nonlinearity. Experimentally, they find it beneficial to use [layer normalization](https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.06450). Good values for $\eta$ and $\lambda$ seem to be 0.5 and 0.9 respectively. I'm not 100% sure, but I also understand that using $S=1$, i.e. using the fast weights only once per time steps, was usually found to be optimal. Also see Figure 3 for the architecture used on the image classification datasets, which is slightly more involved. The authors present a series 4 experiments, comparing with regular RNNs (IRNNs, which are RNNs with ReLU units and whose recurrent weights are initialized to a scaled identity matrix) and LSTMs (as well as an associative LSTM for a synthetic associative retrieval task and ConvNets for the two image datasets). Generally, experiments illustrate that the fast weights RNN tends to train faster (in number of updates) and better than the other recurrent architectures. Surprisingly, the fast weights RNN can even be competitive with a ConvNet on the two image classification benchmarks, where the RNN traverses glimpses from the image using a fixed policy. **My two cents** This is a very thought provoking paper which, based on the comparison with LSTMs, suggests that fast weights RNNs might be a very good alternative. I'd be quite curious to see what would happen if one was to replace LSTMs with them in the myriad of papers using LSTMs (e.g. all the Seq2Seq work). Intuitively, LSTMs seem to be able to do more than just attending to the recent past. But, for a given task, if one was to observe that fast weights RNNs are competitive to LSTMs, it would suggests that the LSTM isn't doing something that much more complex. So it would be interesting to determine what are the tasks where the extra capacity of an LSTM is actually valuable and exploitable. Hopefully the authors will release some code, to facilitate this exploration. The discussion at the end of Section 3 on how exploiting the "memory augmented" view of fast weights is useful to allow the use of minibatches is interesting. However, it also suggests that computations in the fast weights RNN scales quadratically with the sequence size (since in this view, the RNN technically must attend to all previous hidden states, since the beginning of the sequence). This is something to keep in mind, if one was to consider applying this to very long sequences (i.e. much longer than the hidden state dimensionality). Also, I don't quite get the argument that the "memory augmented" view of fast weights is more amenable to minibatch training. I understand that having an explicit weight matrix $A(t)$ for each minibatch sequence complicates things. However, in the memory augmented view, we also have a "memory matrix" that is different for each sequence, and yet we can handle that fine. The problem I can imagine is that storing a *sequence of arbitrary weight matrices* for each sequence might be storage demanding (and thus perhaps make it impossible to store a forward/backward pass for more than one sequence at a time), while the implicit memory matrix only requires appending a new row at each time step. Perhaps the argument to be made here is more that there's already minibatch compatible code out there for dealing with the use of a memory matrix of stored previous memory states. This work strikes some (partial) resemblance to other recent work, which may serve as food for thought here. The use of possibly multiple computation layers between time steps reminds me of [Adaptive Computation Time (ACT) RNN]( http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/Graves16). Also, expressing a backpropable architecture that involves updates to weights (here, hebbianlike updates) reminds me of recent work that does backprop through the updates of a gradient descent procedure (for instance as in [this work]( http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=conf/icml/MaclaurinDA15)). Finally, while I was familiar with the notion of fast weights from the work on [Using Fast Weights to Improve Persistent Contrastive Divergence](http://people.ee.duke.edu/~lcarin/FastGibbsMixing.pdf), I didn't realize that this concept dated as far back as the late 80s. So, for young researchers out there looking for inspiration for research ideas, this paper confirms that looking at the older neural network literature for inspiration is probably a very good strategy :) To sum up, this is really nice work, and I'm looking forward to the NIPS 2016 oral presentation of it! 
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Mask RCNN takes off from where Faster RCNN left, with some augmentations aimed at bettering instance segmentation (which was out of scope for FRCNN). Instance segmentation was achieved remarkably well in *DeepMask* , *SharpMask* and later *Feature Pyramid Networks* (FPN). Faster RCNN was not designed for pixeltopixel alignment between network inputs and outputs. This is most evident in how RoIPool , the de facto core operation for attending to instances, performs coarse spatial quantization for feature extraction. Mask RCNN fixes that by introducing RoIAlign in place of RoIPool. #### Methodology Mask RCNN retains most of the architecture of Faster RCNN. It adds the a third branch for segmentation. The third branch takes the output from RoIAlign layer and predicts binary class masks for each class. ##### Major Changes and intutions **Mask prediction** Mask prediction segmentation predicts a binary mask for each RoI using fully convolution  and the stark difference being usage of *sigmoid* activation for predicting final mask instead of *softmax*, implies masks don't compete with each other. This *decouples* segmentation from classification. The class prediction branch is used for class prediction and for calculating loss, the mask of predicted loss is used calculating Lmask. Also, they show that a single class agnostic mask prediction works almost as effective as separate mask for each class, thereby supporting their method of decoupling classification from segmentation **RoIAlign** RoIPool first quantizes a floatingnumber RoI to the discrete granularity of the feature map, this quantized RoI is then subdivided into spatial bins which are themselves quantized, and finally feature values covered by each bin are aggregated (usually by max pooling). Instead of quantization of the RoI boundaries or bin bilinear interpolation is used to compute the exact values of the input features at four regularly sampled locations in each RoI bin, and aggregate the result (using max or average). **Backbone architecture** Faster RCNN uses a VGG like structure for extracting features from image, weights of which were shared among RPN and region detection layers. Herein, authors experiment with 2 backbone architectures  ResNet based VGG like in FRCNN and ResNet based [FPN](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/LinDGHHB16) based. FPN uses convolution feature maps from previous layers and recombining them to produce pyramid of feature maps to be used for prediction instead of singlescale feature layer (final output of conv layer before connecting to fc layers was used in Faster RCNN) **Training Objective** The training objective looks like this ![](https://i.imgur.com/snUq73Q.png) Lmask is the addition from Faster RCNN. The method to calculate was mentioned above #### Observation Mask RCNN performs significantly better than COCO instance segmentation winners *without any bells and whiskers*. Detailed results are available in the paper 
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This paper proposes a variant of Neural Turing Machine (NTM) for metalearning or "learning to learn", in the specific context of fewshot learning (i.e. learning from few examples). Specifically, the proposed model is trained to ingest as input a training set of examples and improve its output predictions as examples are processed, in a purely feedforward way. This is a form of metalearning because the model is trained so that its forward pass effectively executes a form of "learning" from the examples it is fed as input. During training, the model is fed multiples sequences (referred to as episodes) of labeled examples $({\bf x}_1, {\rm null}), ({\bf x}_2, y_1), \dots, ({\bf x}_T, y_{T1})$, where $T$ is the size of the episode. For instance, if the model is trained to learn how to do 5class classification from 10 examples per class, $T$ would be $5 \times 10 = 50$. Mainly, the paper presents experiments on the Omniglot dataset, which has 1623 classes. In these experiments, classes are separated into 1200 "training classes" and 423 "test classes", and each episode is generated by randomly selecting 5 classes (each assigned some arbitrary vector representation, e.g. a onehot vector that is consistent within the episode, but not across episodes) and constructing a randomly ordered sequence of 50 examples from within the chosen 5 classes. Moreover, the correct label $y_t$ of a given input ${\bf x}_t$ is always provided only at the next time step, but the model is trained to be good at its prediction of the label of ${\bf x}_t$ at the current time step. This is akin to the scenario of online learning on a stream of examples, where the label of an example is revealed only once the model has made a prediction. The proposed NTM is different from the original NTM of Alex Graves, mostly in how it writes into its memory. The authors propose to focus writing to either the least recently used memory location or the most recently used memory location. Moreover, the least recently used memory location is reset to zero before every write (an operation that seems to be ignored when backpropagating gradients). Intuitively, the proposed NTM should learn a strategy by which, given a new input, it looks into its memory for information from other examples earlier in the episode (perhaps similarly to what a nearest neighbor classifier would do) to predict the class of the new input. The paper presents experiments in learning to do multiclass classification on the Omniglot dataset and regression based on functions synthetically generated by a GP. The highlights are that: 1. The proposed model performs much better than an LSTM and better than an NTM with the original write mechanism of Alex Graves (for classification). 2. The proposed model even performs better than a 1st nearest neighbor classifier. 3. The proposed model is even shown to outperform human performance, for the 5class scenario. 4. The proposed model has decent performance on the regression task, compared to GP predictions using the groundtruth kernel. **My two cents** This is probably one of my favorite ICML 2016 papers. I really think metalearning is a problem that deserves more attention, and this paper presents both an interesting proposal for how to do it and an interesting empirical investigation of it. Much like previous work [\[1\]][1] [\[2\]][2], learning is based on automatically generating a metalearning training set. This is clever I think, since a very large number of such "metalearning" examples (the episodes) can be constructed, thus transforming what is normally a "small data problem" (few shot learning) into a "big data problem", for which deep learning is more effective. I'm particularly impressed by how the proposed model outperforms a 1nearest neighbor classifier. That said, the proposed NTM actually performs 4 reads at each time step, which suggests that a fairer comparison might be with a 4nearest neighbor classifier. I do wonder how this baseline would compare. I'm also impressed with the observation that the proposed model surpassed humans. The paper also proposes to use 5letter words to describe classes, instead of onehot vectors. The motivation is that this should make it easier for the model to scale to much more than 5 classes. However, I don't entirely follow the logic as to why onehot vectors are problematic. In fact, I would think that arbitrarily assigning 5letter words to classes would instead imply some similarity between classes that share letters that is arbitrary and doesn't reflect true class similarity. Also, while I find it encouraging that the performance for regression of the proposed model is decent, I'm curious about how it would compare with a GP approach that incrementally learns the kernel's hyperparameter (instead of using the groundtruth values, which makes this baseline unrealistically strong). Finally, I'm still not 100% sure how exactly the NTM is able to implement the type of feedforward inference I'd expect to be required. I would expect it to learn a memory representation of examples that combines information from the input vector ${\bf x}_t$ *and* its label $y_t$. However, since the label of an input is presented at the following time step in an episode, it is not intuitive to me then how the read/write mechanisms are able to deal with this misalignment. My only guess is that since the controller is an LSTM, then it can somehow remember ${\bf x}_t$ until it gets $y_t$ and appropriately include the combined information into the memory. This could be supported by the fact that using a nonrecurrent feedforward controller is much worse than using an LSTM controller. But I'm not 100% sure of this either. All the above being said, this is still a really great paper, which I hope will help stimulate more research on metalearning. Hopefully code for this paper can eventually be released, which would help in popularizing the topic. [1]: http://snowedin.net/tmp/Hochreiter2001.pdf [2]: http://www.thespermwhale.com/jaseweston/ram/papers/paper_16.pdf 
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This paper describes an architecture designed for generating class predictions based on a set of features in situations where you may only have a few examples per class, or, even where you see entirely new classes at test time. Some prior work has approached this problem in ridiculously complex fashion, up to and including training a network to predict the gradient outputs of a metanetwork that it thinks would best optimize loss, given a new class. The method of Prototypical Networks prides itself on being much simpler, and more intuitive, so I hope I’ll be able to convey that in this explanation. In order to think about this problem properly, it makes sense to take a few steps back, and think about some fundamental assumptions that underly machine learning. https://i.imgur.com/Q45w0QT.png One very basic one is that you need some notion of similarity between observations in your training set, and potential new observations in your test set, in order to properly generalize. To put it very simplistically, if a test example is very similar to examples of class A that we saw in training, we might predict it to be of class A at testing. But what does it *mean* for two observations to be similar to one another? If you’re using a method like K Nearest Neighbors, you calculate a point’s class identity based on the closest trainingset observations to it in Euclidean space, and you assume that nearness in that space corresponds to likelihood of two data points having come the same class. This is useful for the use case of having new classes show up after training, since, well, there isn’t really a training period: the strategy for KNN is just carrying your whole training set around, and, whenever a new test point comes along, calculating it’s closest neighbors among those trainingset points. If you see a new class in the wild, all you need to do is add the examples of that class to your group of training set points, and then after a few examples, if your assumptions hold, you’ll be able to predict that class by (hopefully) finding those two or three points as neighbors. But what if some dimensions of your feature space matter much more than others for differentiating between classes? In a simplistic example, you could have twenty features, but, unbeknownst to you, only one is actually useful for separating out your classes, and the other 19 are random. If you use the naive KNN assumption, you wouldn’t expect to perform well here, because you will have distances in these 19 meaningless directions spreading out your points, due to randomness, more than the meaningful dimension spread them out due to belonging to different classes. And what if you want to be able to learn nonlinear relationships between your features, which the composability of multilayer neural networks lends itself well to? In cases like those, the features you were handed may be a woefully suboptimal metric space in which to calculate a kind of similarity that corresponds to differences in class identity, so you’ll just have to strike out for the territories and create a metric space for yourself. That is, at a very high level, what this paper seeks to do: learn a transformation between input features and some vector space, such that distances in that vector space correspond as well as possible to probabilities of belonging to a given output class. You may notice me using “vector space” and “embedding” similarity; they are the same idea: the result of that learned transformation, which represents your input observations as dense vectors in some pdimensional space, where p is a chosen hyperparameter. What are the concrete learning steps this architecture goes through? 1. During each training episode, sample a subset of classes, and then divide those classes into training examples, and query examples 2. Using a set of weights that are being learned by the network, map the input features of each training example into a vector space. 3. Once all training examples are mapped into the space, calculate a “mean vector” for class A by averaging all of the embeddings of training examples that belong to class A. This is the “prototype” for class A, and once we have it, we can forget the values of the embedded examples that were averaged to create it. This is a nice update on the KNN approach, since the number of parameters we need to carry around to evaluate is only (numdimensions) * (numclasses), rather than (numdimensions) * (numtrainingexamples). 4. Then, for each query example, map it into the embedding space, and use a distance metric in that space to create a softmax over possible classes. (You can just think of a softmax as a network’s predicted probability, it’s a set of floats that add up to 1). 5. Then, you can calculate the (crossentropy) error between the true output and that softmax prediction vector in the same way as you would for any classification network 6. Add up the prediction loss for all the query examples, and then backpropogate through the network to update your weights The overall effect of this process is to incentivize your network to learn, not necessarily a good prediction function, but a good metric space. The idea is that, if the metric space is good enough, and the classes are conceptually similar to each other (i.e. car vs chair, as opposed to car vs themeaningoflife), a space that does well at causing similar observed classes to be close to one another will do the same for classes not seen during training. I admit to not being sufficiently familiar with the datasets used for testing to have a sense for how well this method compares to more fully supervised classification schemes; if anyone does, definitely let me know! But the paper claims to get state of the art results compared to other approaches in this domain of fewshot learning (matching networks, and the aforementioned metalearning). One interesting note is that the authors found that squared Euclidean distance, when applied within the embedded space, worked meaningfully better than cosine distance (which is a more standard way of measuring distances between vectors, since it measures only angle, rather than magnitude). They suspect that this is because Euclidean distance, but not cosine distance belongs to a category of divergence/distance metrics (called Bregman Divergences) that have a special set of properties such that the point closest on aggregate to all points in a cluster is the average of all those points. If you want to dive way deep into the minutia on this point, I found this blog post quite good: http://mark.reid.name/blog/meetthebregmandivergences.html
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This paper describes how to apply the idea of batch normalization (BN) successfully to recurrent neural networks, specifically to LSTM networks. The technique involves the 3 following ideas: **1) Careful initialization of the BN scaling parameter.** While standard practice is to initialize it to 1 (to have unit variance), they show that this situation creates problems with the gradient flow through time, which vanishes quickly. A value around 0.1 (used in the experiments) preserves gradient flow much better. **2) Separate BN for the "hiddens to hiddens preactivation and for the "inputs to hiddens" preactivation.** In other words, 2 separate BN operators are applied on each contributions to the preactivation, before summing and passing through the tanh and sigmoid nonlinearities. **3) Use of largest timestep BN statistics for longer testtime sequences.** Indeed, one issue with applying BN to RNNs is that if the input sequences have varying length, and if one uses pertimestep mean/variance statistics in the BN transformation (which is the natural thing to do), it hasn't been clear how do deal with the last time steps of longer sequences seen at test time, for which BN has no statistics from the training set. The paper shows evidence that the preactivation statistics tend to gradually converge to stationary values over time steps, which supports the idea of simply using the training set's last time step statistics. Among these ideas, I believe the most impactful idea is 1). The papers mentions towards the end that improper initialization of the BN scaling parameter probably explains previous failed attempts to apply BN to recurrent networks. Experiments on 4 datasets confirms the method's success. **My two cents** This is an excellent development for LSTMs. BN has had an important impact on our success in training deep neural networks, and this approach might very well have a similar impact on the success of LSTMs in practice. 
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This paper presents a perframe imagetoimage translation system enabling copying of a motion of a person from a source video to a target person. For example, a source video might be a professional dancer performing complicated moves, while the target person is you. By utilizing this approach, it is possible to generate a video of you dancing as a professional. Check the authors' [video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCBTZh41Ris) for the visual explanation. **Data preparation** The authors have manually recorded highresolution video ( at 120fps ) of a person performing various random moves. The video is further decomposed to frames, and person's pose keypoints (body joints, hands, face) are extracted for each frame. These keypoints are further connected to form a person stick figure. In practice, pose estimation is performed by open source project [OpenPose](https://github.com/CMUPerceptualComputingLab/openpose). **Training** https://i.imgur.com/VZCXZMa.png Once the data is prepared the training is performed in two stages: 1. **Training pix2pixHD model with temporal smoothing**. The core model is an original [pix2pixHD](https://tcwang0509.github.io/pix2pixHD/)[1] model with temporal smoothing. Specifically, if we were to use vanilla pix2pixHD, the input to the model would be a stick person image, and the target is the person's image corresponding to the pose. The network's objective would be $min_{G} (Loss1 + Loss2 + Loss3)$, where:  $Loss1 = max_{D_1, D_2, D_3} \sum_{k=1,2,3} \alpha_{GAN}(G, D_k)$ is adverserial loss;  $Loss2 = \lambda_{FM} \sum_{k=1,2,3} \alpha_{FM}(G,D_k)$ is feature matching loss;  $Loss3 = \lambda_{VGG}\alpha_{VGG}(G(x),y)]$ is VGG perceptual loss. However, this objective does not account for the fact that we want to generate video composed of frames that are temporally coherent. The authors propose to ensure *temporal smoothing* between adjacent frames by including pose, corresponding image, and generated image from the previous step (zero image for the first frame) as shown in the figure below: https://i.imgur.com/0NSeBVt.png Since the generated output $G(x_t; G(x_{t1}))$ at time step $t$ is now conditioned on the previously generated frame $G(x_{t1})$ as well as current stick image $x_t$, better temporal consistency is ensured. Consequently, the discriminator is now trying to determine both correct generation, as well as temporal consitency for a fake sequence $[x_{t1}; x_t; G(x_{t1}), G(x_t)]$. 2. **Training FaceGAN model**. https://i.imgur.com/mV1xuMi.png In order to improve face generation, the authors propose to use specialized FaceGAN. In practice, this is another smaller pix2pixHD model (with a global generator only, instead of local+global) which is fed with a cropped face area of a stick image and cropped face area of a corresponding generated image (from previous step 1) and aims to generate a residual which is added to the previously generated full image. **Testing** During testing, we extract frames from the input video, obtain pose stick image for each frame, normalize the stick pose image and feed it to pix2pixHD (with temporal consistency) and, further, to FaceGAN to produce final generated image with improved face features. Normalization is needed to capture possible pose variation between a source and a target input video. **Remarks** While this method produces a visually appealing result, it is not perfect. The are several reasons for being so: 1. *Quality of a pose stick image*: if the pose detector "misses" the keypoint, the generator might have difficulties to generate a properly rendered image; 2. *Motion blur*: motion blur causes pose detector to miss keypoints; 3. *Severe scale change*: if source person is very far, keypoint detector might fail to detect proper keypoints. Among video rendering challenges, the authors mention selfocclusion, cloth texture generation, video jittering (trainingtest motion mismatch). References: [1] "HighResolution Image Synthesis and Semantic Manipulation with Conditional GANs"
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* The paper describes a method to separate content and style from each other in an image. * The style can then be transfered to a new image. * Examples: * Let a photograph look like a painting of van Gogh. * Improve a dark beach photo by taking the style from a sunny beach photo. ### How * They use the pretrained 19layer VGG net as their base network. * They assume that two images are provided: One with the *content*, one with the desired *style*. * They feed the content image through the VGG net and extract the activations of the last convolutional layer. These activations are called the *content representation*. * They feed the style image through the VGG net and extract the activations of all convolutional layers. They transform each layer to a *Gram Matrix* representation. These Gram Matrices are called the *style representation*. * How to calculate a *Gram Matrix*: * Take the activations of a layer. That layer will contain some convolution filters (e.g. 128), each one having its own activations. * Convert each filter's activations to a (1dimensional) vector. * Pick all pairs of filters. Calculate the scalar product of both filter's vectors. * Add the scalar product result as an entry to a matrix of size `#filters x #filters` (e.g. 128x128). * Repeat that for every pair to get the Gram Matrix. * The Gram Matrix roughly represents the *texture* of the image. * Now you have the content representation (activations of a layer) and the style representation (Gram Matrices). * Create a new image of the size of the content image. Fill it with random white noise. * Feed that image through VGG to get its content representation and style representation. (This step will be repeated many times during the image creation.) * Make changes to the new image using gradient descent to optimize a loss function. * The loss function has two components: * The mean squared error between the new image's content representation and the previously extracted content representation. * The mean squared error between the new image's style representation and the previously extracted style representation. * Add up both components to get the total loss. * Give both components a weight to alter for more/less style matching (at the expense of content matching). ![Examples](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/aleju/papers/master/neuralnets/images/A_Neural_Algorithm_for_Artistic_Style__examples.jpg?raw=true "Examples") *One example input image with different styles added to it.*  ### Rough chapterwise notes * Page 1 * A painted image can be decomposed in its content and its artistic style. * Here they use a neural network to separate content and style from each other (and to apply that style to an existing image). * Page 2 * Representations get more abstract as you go deeper in networks, hence they should more resemble the actual content (as opposed to the artistic style). * They call the feature responses in higher layers *content representation*. * To capture style information, they use a method that was originally designed to capture texture information. * They somehow build a feature space on top of the existing one, that is somehow dependent on correlations of features. That leads to a "stationary" (?) and multiscale representation of the style. * Page 3 * They use VGG as their base CNN. * Page 4 * Based on the extracted style features, they can generate a new image, which has equal activations in these style features. * The new image should match the style (texture, color, localized structures) of the artistic image. * The style features become more and more abtstract with higher layers. They call that multiscale the *style representation*. * The key contribution of the paper is a method to separate style and content representation from each other. * These representations can then be used to change the style of an existing image (by changing it so that its content representation stays the same, but its style representation matches the artwork). * Page 6 * The generated images look most appealing if all features from the style representation are used. (The lower layers tend to reflect small features, the higher layers tend to reflect larger features.) * Content and style can't be separated perfectly. * Their loss function has two terms, one for content matching and one for style matching. * The terms can be increased/decreased to match content or style more. * Page 8 * Previous techniques work only on limited or simple domains or used nonparametric approaches (see nonphotorealistic rendering). * Previously neural networks have been used to classify the time period of paintings (based on their style). * They argue that separating content from style might be useful and many other domains (other than transfering style of paintings to images). * Page 9 * The style representation is gathered by measuring correlations between activations of neurons. * They argue that this is somehow similar to what "complex cells" in the primary visual system (V1) do. * They note that deep convnets seem to automatically learn to separate content from style, probably because it is helpful for styleinvariant classification. * Page 9, Methods * They use the 19 layer VGG net as their basis. * They use only its convolutional layers, not the linear ones. * They use average pooling instead of max pooling, as that produced slightly better results. * Page 10, Methods * The information about the image that is contained in layers can be visualized. To do that, extract the features of a layer as the labels, then start with a white noise image and change it via gradient descent until the generated features have minimal distance (MSE) to the extracted features. * The build a style representation by calculating Gram Matrices for each layer. * Page 11, Methods * The Gram Matrix is generated in the following way: * Convert each filter of a convolutional layer to a 1dimensional vector. * For a pair of filters i, j calculate the value in the Gram Matrix by calculating the scalar product of the two vectors of the filters. * Do that for every pair of filters, generating a matrix of size #filters x #filters. That is the Gram Matrix. * Again, a white noise image can be changed with gradient descent to match the style of a given image (i.e. minimize MSE between two Gram Matrices). * That can be extended to match the style of several layers by measuring the MSE of the Gram Matrices of each layer and giving each layer a weighting. * Page 12, Methods * To transfer the style of a painting to an existing image, proceed as follows: * Start with a white noise image. * Optimize that image with gradient descent so that it minimizes both the content loss (relative to the image) and the style loss (relative to the painting). * Each distance (content, style) can be weighted to have more or less influence on the loss function. 
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Deeper networks should never have a higher **training** error than smaller ones. In the worst case, the layers should "simply" learn identities. It seems as this is not so easy with conventional networks, as they get much worse with more layers. So the idea is to add identity functions which skip some layers. The network only has to learn the **residuals**. Advantages: * Learning the identity becomes learning 0 which is simpler * Loss in information flow in the forward pass is not a problem anymore * No vanishing / exploding gradient * Identities don't have parameters to be learned ## Evaluation The learning rate starts at 0.1 and is divided by 10 when the error plateaus. Weight decay of 0.0001 ($10^{4}$), momentum of 0.9. They use minibatches of size 128. * ImageNet ILSVRC 2015: 3.57% (ensemble) * CIFAR10: 6.43% * MS COCO: 59.0% mAp@0.5 (ensemble) * PASCAL VOC 2007: 85.6% mAp@0.5 * PASCAL VOC 2012: 83.8% mAp@0.5 ## See also * [DenseNets](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/1608.06993) 
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SSD aims to solve the major problem with most of the current state of the art object detectors namely Faster RCNN and like. All the object detection algortihms have same methodology  Train 2 different nets  Region Proposal Net (RPN) and advanced classifier to detect class of an object and bounding box separately.  During inference, run the test image at different scales to detect object at multiple scales to account for invariance This makes the nets extremely slow. Faster RCNN could operate at **7 FPS with 73.2% mAP** while SSD could achieve **59 FPS with 74.3% mAP ** on VOC 2007 dataset. #### Methodology SSD uses a single net for predict object class and bounding box. However it doesn't do that directly. It uses a mechanism for choosing ROIs, training endtoend for predicting class and boundary shift for that ROI. ##### ROI selection Borrowing from FasterRCNNs SSD uses the concept of anchor boxes for generating ROIs from the feature maps of last layer of shared conv layer. For each pixel in layer of feature maps, k default boxes with different aspect ratios are chosen around every pixel in the map. So if there are feature maps each of m x n resolutions  that's *mnk* ROIs for a single feature layer. Now SSD uses multiple feature layers (with differing resolutions) for generating such ROIs primarily to capture size invariance of objects. But because earlier layers in deep conv net tends to capture low level features, it uses features after certain levels and layers henceforth. ##### ROI labelling Any ROI that matches to Ground Truth for a class after applying appropriate transforms and having Jaccard overlap greater than 0.5 is positive. Now, given all feature maps are at different resolutions and each boxes are at different aspect ratios, doing that's not simple. SDD uses simple scaling and aspect ratios to get to the appropriate ground truth dimensions for calculating Jaccard overlap for default boxes for each pixel at the given resolution ##### ROI classification SSD uses single convolution kernel of 3*3 receptive fields to predict for each ROI the 4 offsets (centrex offset, centrey offset, height offset , width offset) from the Ground Truth box for each RoI, along with class confidence scores for each class. So that is if there are c classes (including background), there are (c+4) filters for each convolution kernels that looks at a ROI. So summarily we have convolution kernels that look at ROIs (which are default boxes around each pixel in feature map layer) to generate (c+4) scores for each RoI. Multiple feature map layers with different resolutions are used for generating such ROIs. Some ROIs are positive and some negative depending on jaccard overlap after ground box has scaled appropriately taking resolution differences in input image and feature map into consideration. Here's how it looks : ![](https://i.imgur.com/HOhsPZh.png) ##### Training For each ROI a combined loss is calculated as a combination of localisation error and classification error. The details are best explained in the figure. ![](https://i.imgur.com/zEDuSgi.png) ##### Inference For each ROI predictions a small threshold is used to first filter out irrelevant predictions, Non Maximum Suppression (nms) with jaccard overlap of 0.45 per class is applied then on the remaining candidate ROIs and the top 200 detections per image are kept. For further understanding of the intuitions regarding the paper and the results obtained please consider giving the full paper a read. The open sourced code is available at this [Github repo](https://github.com/weiliu89/caffe/tree/ssd) 
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## Terms * Semantic Segmentation: Traditional segmentation divides the image in visually similar patches. Semantic segmentation on the other hand divides the image in semantically meaningful patches. This usually means to classify each pixel (e.g.: This pixel belongs to a cat, that pixel belongs to a dog, the other pixel is background). ## Main ideas * Complete neural networks which were trained for image classification can be used as a convolution. Those networks can be trained on Image Net (e.g. VGG, AlexNet, GoogLeNet) * Use upsampling to (1) reduce training and prediction time (2) improve consistency of output. (See [What are deconvolutional layers?](http://datascience.stackexchange.com/a/12110/8820) for an explanation.) ## How FCNs work 1. Train a neural network for image classification which is trained on input images of a fixed size ($d \times w \times h$) 2. Interpret the network as a single convolutional filter for each output neuron (so $k$ output neurons means you have $k$ filters) over the complete image area on which the original network was trained. 3. Run the network as a CNN over an image of any size (but at least $d \times w \times h$) with a stride $s \in \mathbb{N}_{\geq 1}$ 4. If $s > 1$, then you need an upsampling layer (deconvolutional layer) to convert the coarse output into a dense output. ## Nice properties * FCNs take images of arbitrary size and produce an image of the same output size. * Computationally efficient ## See also: https://www.quora.com/Whatarethebenefitsofconvertingafullyconnectedlayerinadeepneuralnetworktoanequivalentconvolutionallayer > They allow you to treat the convolutional neural network as one giant filter. You can then spatially apply the neural net as a convolution to images larger than the original training image size, getting a spatially dense output. > > Let's say you train a neural net (with some loss function) with a convolutional layer (3 x 3, stride of 2), pooling layer (3 x 3, stride of 2), and a fully connected layer with 10 units, using 25 x 25 images. Note that the receptive field size of each max pooling unit is 7 x 7, so the pooling output is 5 x 5. You can convert the fully connected layer to to a set of 10 5 x 5 convolutional filters (unit strides). If you do that, the entire net can be treated as a filter with receptive field size 35 x 35 and stride of 4. You can then take that net and apply it to a 50 x 50 image, and you'd get a 3 x 3 x 10 spatially dense output.
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### What is BN: * Batch Normalization (BN) is a normalization method/layer for neural networks. * Usually inputs to neural networks are normalized to either the range of [0, 1] or [1, 1] or to mean=0 and variance=1. The latter is called *Whitening*. * BN essentially performs Whitening to the intermediate layers of the networks. ### How its calculated: * The basic formula is $x^* = (x  E[x]) / \sqrt{\text{var}(x)}$, where $x^*$ is the new value of a single component, $E[x]$ is its mean within a batch and `var(x)` is its variance within a batch. * BN extends that formula further to $x^{**} = gamma * x^* +$ beta, where $x^{**}$ is the final normalized value. `gamma` and `beta` are learned per layer. They make sure that BN can learn the identity function, which is needed in a few cases. * For convolutions, every layer/filter/kernel is normalized on its own (linear layer: each neuron/node/component). That means that every generated value ("pixel") is treated as an example. If we have a batch size of N and the image generated by the convolution has width=P and height=Q, we would calculate the mean (E) over `N*P*Q` examples (same for the variance). ### Theoretical effects: * BN reduces *Covariate Shift*. That is the change in distribution of activation of a component. By using BN, each neuron's activation becomes (more or less) a gaussian distribution, i.e. its usually not active, sometimes a bit active, rare very active. * Covariate Shift is undesirable, because the later layers have to keep adapting to the change of the type of distribution (instead of just to new distribution parameters, e.g. new mean and variance values for gaussian distributions). * BN reduces effects of exploding and vanishing gradients, because every becomes roughly normal distributed. Without BN, low activations of one layer can lead to lower activations in the next layer, and then even lower ones in the next layer and so on. ### Practical effects: * BN reduces training times. (Because of less Covariate Shift, less exploding/vanishing gradients.) * BN reduces demand for regularization, e.g. dropout or L2 norm. (Because the means and variances are calculated over batches and therefore every normalized value depends on the current batch. I.e. the network can no longer just memorize values and their correct answers.) * BN allows higher learning rates. (Because of less danger of exploding/vanishing gradients.) * BN enables training with saturating nonlinearities in deep networks, e.g. sigmoid. (Because the normalization prevents them from getting stuck in saturating ranges, e.g. very high/low values for sigmoid.) ![MNIST and neuron activations](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/aleju/papers/master/neuralnets/images/Batch_Normalization__performance_and_activations.png?raw=true "MNIST and neuron activations") *BN applied to MNIST (a), and activations of a randomly selected neuron over time (b, c), where the middle line is the median activation, the top line is the 15th percentile and the bottom line is the 85th percentile.*  ### Rough chapterwise notes * (2) Towards Reducing Covariate Shift * Batch Normalization (*BN*) is a special normalization method for neural networks. * In neural networks, the inputs to each layer depend on the outputs of all previous layers. * The distributions of these outputs can change during the training. Such a change is called a *covariate shift*. * If the distributions stayed the same, it would simplify the training. Then only the parameters would have to be readjusted continuously (e.g. mean and variance for normal distributions). * If using sigmoid activations, it can happen that one unit saturates (very high/low values). That is undesired as it leads to vanishing gradients for all units below in the network. * BN fixes the means and variances of layer inputs to specific values (zero mean, unit variance). * That accomplishes: * No more covariate shift. * Fixes problems with vanishing gradients due to saturation. * Effects: * Networks learn faster. (As they don't have to adjust to covariate shift any more.) * Optimizes gradient flow in the network. (As the gradient becomes less dependent on the scale of the parameters and their initial values.) * Higher learning rates are possible. (Optimized gradient flow reduces risk of divergence.) * Saturating nonlinearities can be safely used. (Optimized gradient flow prevents the network from getting stuck in saturated modes.) * BN reduces the need for dropout. (As it has a regularizing effect.) * How BN works: * BN normalizes layer inputs to zero mean and unit variance. That is called *whitening*. * Naive method: Train on a batch. Update model parameters. Then normalize. Doesn't work: Leads to exploding biases while distribution parameters (mean, variance) don't change. * A proper method has to include the current example *and* all previous examples in the normalization step. * This leads to calculating in covariance matrix and its inverse square root. That's expensive. The authors found a faster way. * (3) Normalization via MiniBatch Statistics * Each feature (component) is normalized individually. (Due to cost, differentiability.) * Normalization according to: `componentNormalizedValue = (componentOldValue  E[component]) / sqrt(Var(component))` * Normalizing each component can reduce the expressitivity of nonlinearities. Hence the formula is changed so that it can also learn the identiy function. * Full formula: `newValue = gamma * componentNormalizedValue + beta` (gamma and beta learned per component) * E and Var are estimated for each mini batch. * BN is fully differentiable. Formulas for gradients/backpropagation are at the end of chapter 3 (page 4, left). * (3.1) Training and Inference with BatchNormalized Networks * During test time, E and Var of each component can be estimated using all examples or alternatively with moving averages estimated during training. * During test time, the BN formulas can be simplified to a single linear transformation. * (3.2) BatchNormalized Convolutional Networks * Authors recommend to place BN layers after linear/fullyconnected layers and before the ninlinearities. * They argue that the linear layers have a better distribution that is more likely to be similar to a gaussian. * Placing BN after the nonlinearity would also not eliminate covariate shift (for some reason). * Learning a separate bias isn't necessary as BN's formula already contains a biaslike term (beta). * For convolutions they apply BN equally to all features on a feature map. That creates effective batch sizes of m\*pq, where m is the number of examples in the batch and p q are the feature map dimensions (height, width). BN for linear layers has a batch size of m. * gamma and beta are then learned per feature map, not per single pixel. (Linear layers: Per neuron.) * (3.3) Batch Normalization enables higher learning rates * BN normalizes activations. * Result: Changes to early layers don't amplify towards the end. * BN makes it less likely to get stuck in the saturating parts of nonlinearities. * BN makes training more resilient to parameter scales. * Usually, large learning rates cannot be used as they tend to scale up parameters. Then any change to a parameter amplifies through the network and can lead to gradient explosions. * With BN gradients actually go down as parameters increase. Therefore, higher learning rates can be used. * (something about singular values and the Jacobian) * (3.4) Batch Normalization regularizes the model * Usually: Examples are seen on their own by the network. * With BN: Examples are seen in conjunction with other examples (mean, variance). * Result: Network can't easily memorize the examples any more. * Effect: BN has a regularizing effect. Dropout can be removed or decreased in strength. * (4) Experiments * (4.1) Activations over time ** They tested BN on MNIST with a 100x100x10 network. (One network with BN before each nonlinearity, another network without BN for comparison.) ** Batch Size was 60. ** The network with BN learned faster. Activations of neurons (their means and variances over several examples) seemed to be more consistent during training. ** Generalization of the BN network seemed to be better. * (4.2) ImageNet classification ** They applied BN to the Inception network. ** Batch Size was 32. ** During training they used (compared to original Inception training) a higher learning rate with more decay, no dropout, less L2, no local response normalization and less distortion/augmentation. ** They shuffle the data during training (i.e. each batch contains different examples). ** Depending on the learning rate, they either achieve the same accuracy (as in the nonBN network) in 14 times fewer steps (5x learning rate) or a higher accuracy in 5 times fewer steps (30x learning rate). ** BN enables training of Inception networks with sigmoid units (still a bit lower accuracy than ReLU). ** An ensemble of 6 Inception networks with BN achieved better accuracy than the previously best network for ImageNet. * (5) Conclusion ** BN is similar to a normalization layer suggested by Gülcehre and Bengio. However, they applied it to the outputs of nonlinearities. ** They also didn't have the beta and gamma parameters (i.e. their normalization could not learn the identity function). 
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#### Introduction * The paper explores the domain of conditional image generation by adopting and improving PixelCNN architecture. * [Link to the paper](https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.05328) #### Based on PixelRNN and PixelCNN * Models image pixel by pixel by decomposing the joint image distribution as a product of conditionals. * PixelRNN uses twodimensional LSTM while PixelCNN uses convolutional networks. * PixelRNN gives better results but PixelCNN is faster to train. #### Gated PixelCNN * PixelRNN outperforms PixelCNN due to the larger receptive field and because they contain multiplicative units, LSTM gates, which allow modelling more complex interactions. * To account for these, deeper models and gated activation units (equation 2 in the [paper](https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.05328)) can be used respectively. * Masked convolutions can lead to blind spots in the receptive fields. * These can be removed by combining 2 convolutional network stacks: * Horizontal stack  conditions on the current row. * Vertical stack  conditions on all rows above the current row. * Every layer in the horizontal stack takes as input the output of the previous layer as well as that of the vertical stack. * Residual connections are used in the horizontal stack and not in the vertical stack (as they did not seem to improve results in the initial settings). #### Conditional PixelCNN * Model conditional distribution of image, given the highlevel description of the image, represented using the latent vector h (equation 4 in the [paper](https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.05328)) * This conditioning does not depend on the location of the pixel in the image. * To consider the location as well, map h to spatial representation $s = m(h)$ (equation 5 in the the [paper](https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.05328)) #### PixelCNN AutoEncoders * Start with a traditional autoencoder architecture and replace the deconvolutional decoder with PixelCNN and train the network endtoend. #### Experiments * For unconditional modelling, Gated PixelCNN either outperforms PixelRNN or performs almost as good and takes much less time to train. * In the case of conditioning on ImageNet classes, the log likelihood measure did not improve a lot but the visual quality of the generated sampled was significantly improved. * Paper also included sample images generated by conditioning on human portraits and by training a PixelCNN autoencoder on ImageNet patches. 
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In the paper, authors Bengio et al. , use the DenseNet for semantic segmentation. DenseNets iteratively concatenates input feature maps to output feature maps. The biggest contribution was the use of a novel upsampling path  given conventional upsampling would've caused severe memory cruch. #### Background All fully convolutional semantic segmentation nets generally follow a conventional path  a downsampling path which acts as feature extractor, an upsampling path that restores the locational information of every feature extracted in the downsampling path. As opposed to Residual Nets (where input feature maps are added to the output) , in DenseNets,the output is concatenated to input which has some interesting implications:  DenseNets are efficient in the parameter usage, since all the feature maps are reused  DenseNets perform deep supervision thanks to short path to all feature maps in the architecture Using DenseNets for segmentation though had an issue with upsampling in the conventional way of concatenating feature maps through skip connections as feature maps could easily go beyond 11.5 K. So Bengio et al. suggests a novel way  wherein only feature maps produced in the last Dense layer are only upsampled and not the entire feature maps. Post upsampling, the output is concatenated with feature maps of same resolution from downsampling path through skip connection. That way, the information lost during pooling in the downsampling path can be recovered. #### Methodology & Architecture In the downsampling path, the input is concatenated with the output of a dense block, whereas for upsampling the output of dense block is upsampled (without concatenating it with the input) and then concatenated with the same resolution output of downsampling path. Here's the overall architecture ![](https://i.imgur.com/tqsPj72.png) Here's how a Dense Block looks like ![](https://i.imgur.com/MMqosoj.png) #### Results The 103 Conv layer based DenseNet (FCDenseNet103) performed better than shallower networks when compared on CamVid dataset. Though the FCDenseNets were not pretrained or used any postprocessing like CRF or temporal smoothening etc. When comparing to other nets FCDenseNet architectures achieve stateoftheart, improving upon models with 10 times more parameters. It is also worth mentioning that small model FCDenseNet56 already outperforms popular architectures with at least 100 times more parameters. 
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The goal of this work is to perform transfer learning among numerous tasks and to discover visual relationships among them. Specifically, while we intiutively might guess the depth of an image and surface normals are related, this work takes a step forward and discovers a beneficial relationship among 26 tasks in terms of task transferability  many of them are not obvious. This is important for scenarios when an insufficient budget is available for target task for annotation, thus, learned representation from the 'cheaper' task could be used along with small dataset for the target task to reach sufficient performance on par with fully supervised training on a large dataset. The basis of the approach is to compute an affinity matrix among tasks based on whether the solution for one task can be sufficiently easily used for another task. This approach does not impose human intuition about the task relationships and chooses task transferability based on the quality of a transfer operation in a fully computational manner. The task taxonomy (i.e. **taskonomy**) is a computationally found directed hypergraph that captures the notion of task transferability over any given task dictionary. It performed using a fourstep process depicted in the figure below: ![Process overview. The steps involved in creating the taxonomy.](http://taskonomy.stanford.edu/img/svg/Process.svg)  In stage I (**Taskspecific Modelling**), a taskspecific network is trained in a fully supervised manner. The network is composed of the encoder (modified ResNet50), and fully convolutional decoder for pixeltopixel tasks, or 23 FC layers for lowdimensional tasks. Dataset consists of 4 million images of indoor scenes from about 600 buildings; every image has an annotation for every task.  In stage II (**Transfer modeling**), all feasible transfers between sources and targets are trained (multiple inputs task to single target transfer is also considered). Specifically, after the taskspecific networks are trained in stage I, the weights of an encoder are fixed (frozen network is used to extract representations only) and the representation from the encoder is used to train a small readout network (similar to a decoder from stage I) with a new task as a target (i.e. ground truth is available). In total, about 3000 transfer possibilities are trained.  In stage III (**Taxonomy solver**), the task affinities acquired from the transfer functions performance are normalized. This is needed because different tasks lie in different spaces and transfer function scale. This is performed using ordinal normalization  Analytical Hierarchy Process (details are in the paper  Section 3.3). This results in an affinity matrix where a complete graph of relationships is completely normalized and this graph quantifies a pairwise set of tasks evaluated in terms of a transfer function (i.e. task dependency).  In stage IV (**Computed Taxonomy**), a hypergraph which can predict the performance of any transfer policy and optimize for the optimal one is synthesized. This is solved using Binary Integer Program as a subgraph selection problem where tasks are nodes and transfers are edges. After the optimization process, the solution devices a connectivity that solves all target tasks, maximizes their collective performance while using only available source tasks under userspecified constraints (e.g. budget). So, if you want to train your network on an unseen task, you can obtain pretrained weights for existing tasks from the [project page](https://github.com/StanfordVL/taskonomy/tree/master/taskbank), train readout functions against each task (as well as combination of multiple inputs), build an affinity matrix to know where your task is positioned against the other ones, and through subgraph selection procedure observe what tasks have favourable influence on your task. Consequently, you can train your task with much less data by utilizing representations from the existing tasks which share visual significance with your task. Magnificent! 
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One of the dominant narratives of the deep learning renaissance has been the value of welldesigned inductive bias  structural choices that shape what a model learns. The biggest example of this can be found in convolutional networks, where models achieve a dramatic parameter reduction by having features maps learn local patterns, which can then be reused across the whole image. This is based on the prior belief that patterns in local images are generally locally contiguous, and so having feature maps that focus only on small (and gradually larger) local areas is a good fit for that prior. This paper operates in a similar spirit, except its input data isn’t in the form of an image, but a graph: the social graph of multiple agents operating within a Multi Agent RL Setting. In some sense, a graph is just a more general form of a pixel image: where a pixel within an image has a fixed number of neighbors, which have fixed discrete relationships to it (up, down, left, right), nodes within graphs have an arbitrary number of nodes, which can have arbitrary numbers and types of attributes attached to that relationship. The authors of this paper use graph networks as a sort of auxiliary information processing system alongside a more typical policy learning framework, on tasks that require group coordination and knowledge sharing to complete successfully. For example, each agent might be rewarded based on the aggregate reward of all agents together, and, in the stag hunt, it might require collaborative effort by multiple agents to successfully “capture” a reward. Because of this, you might imagine that it would be valuable to be able to predict what other agents within the game are going to do under certain circumstances, so that you can shape your strategy accordingly. The graph network used in this model represents both agents and objects in the environment as nodes, which have attributes including their position, whether they’re available or not (for captureable objects), and what their last action was. As best I can tell, all agents start out with directed connections going both ways to all other agents, and to all objects in the environment, with the only edge attribute being whether the players are on the same team, for competitive environments. Given this setup, the graph network works through a sort of “diffusion” of information, analogous to a message passing algorithm. At each iteration (analogous to a layer), the edge features pull in information from their past value and sender and receiver nodes, as well as from a “global feature”. Then, all of the nodes pull in information from their edges, and their own past value. Finally, this “global attribute” gets updated based on summations over the newlyupdated node and edge information. (If you were predicting attributes that were graphlevel attributes, this global attribute might be where you’d do that prediction. However, in this case, we’re just interested in predicting agentlevel actions). https://i.imgur.com/luFlhfJ.png All of this has the effect of explicitly modeling agents as entities that both have information, and have connections to other entities. One benefit the authors claim of this structure is that it allows them more interpretability: when they “play out” the values of their graph network, which they call a Relational Forward Model or RFM, they observe edge values for two agents go up if those agents are about to collaborate on an action, and observe edge values for an agent and an object go up before that object is captured. Because this information is carefully shaped and structured, it makes it easier for humans to understand, and, in the tests the authors ran, appears to also help agents do better in collaborative games. https://i.imgur.com/BCKSmIb.png While I find graph networks quite interesting, and multiagent learning quite interesting, I’m a little more uncertain about the inherent “graphiness” of this problem, since there aren’t really meaningful inherent edges between agents. One thing I am curious about here is how methods like these would work in situations of sparser graphs, or, places where the connectivity level between a node’s neighbors, and the average other node in the graph is more distinct. Here, every node is connected to every other node, so the explicit information localization function of graph networks is less pronounced. I might naively think that  to whatever extent the graph is designed in a way that captures information meaningful to the task  explicit graph methods would have an even greater comparative advantage in this setting. 
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Feature Pyramid Networks (FPNs) build on top of the stateoftheart implementation for object detection net  Faster RCNN. Faster RCNN faces a major problem in training for scaleinvariance as the computations can be memoryintensive and extremely slow. So FRCNN only applies multiscale approach while testing. On the other hand, feature pyramids were mainstream when handgenerated features were used primarily to counter scaleinvariance. Feature pyramids are collections of features computed at multiscale versions of the same image. Improving on a similar idea presented in *DeepMask*, FPN brings back feature pyramids using different feature maps of conv layers with differing spatial resolutions with predictiosn happening on all levels of pyramid. Using feature maps directly as it is, would be tough as initial layers tend to contain lower level representations and poor semantics but good localisation whereas deeper layers tend to constitute higher level representations with rich semantics but suffer poor localisation due to multiple subsampling. ##### Methodology FPN can be used with any normal conv architecture, that's used for classification. In such an architecture all layers have progressively decreasing spatial resolutions (say C1, C2,..C5). FPN would now take C5 and convolve with 1x1 kernel to reduce filters to give P5. Next, P5 is upsampled and merged it to C4 (C4 is convolved with 1x1 kernel to decrease filter size in order to match that of upsampled P5) by adding element wise to produce P4. Similarly P4 is upsampled and merged with C3(in a similar way) to give P3 and so on. The final set of feature maps, in this case {P2 .. P5} are used as feature pyramids. This is how pyramids would look like ![](https://i.imgur.com/oHFmpww.png) *Usage of combination of {P2,..P5} as compared to only P2* : P2 produces highest resolution, most semantic features and could as well be the default choice but because of shared weights across rest of feature layers and the learned scale invariance makes the pyramidal variant more robust to generating false ROIs For next steps, it could be RPN or RCNN, the regression and classifier would share weights across for all *anchors* (of varying aspect ratios) at each level of the feature pyramids. This step is similar to [Single Shot Detector (SSD) Networks ](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=conf/eccv/LiuAESRFB16) ##### Observation The FPN was used in FRCNN in both parts of RPN and RCNN separately and then combined FPN in both parts and produced stateoftheart result in MS COCO challenges bettering results of COCO '15 & '16 winner models ( Faster RCNN +++ & GMRI) for mAP. FPN also can be used for instance segmentation by using fully convolutional layers on top of the image pyramids. FPN outperforms results from *DeepMask*, *SharpMask*, *InstanceFCN* 
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Szegedy et al. were (to the best of my knowledge) the first to describe the phenomen of adversarial examples as researched today. Specifically, they described the main objective in order to obtain adversarial examples as $\arg\min_r \r\_2$ s.t. $f(x+r)=l$ and $x+r$ being a valid image where $f$ is the neural network and $l$ the target class (i.e. targeted adversarial example). In the paper, they originally headlined the section by “blind spots in neural networks”. While they give some explanation and provide experiments, also introducing the notion of transferability of adversarial examples and an idea of adversarial examples used as regularization during training, many questions are left open. The given conclusion, that these adversarial examples are highly unlikely and that these examples lie dense within regular training examples are controversial in the literature. 
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FaceNet directly maps face images to $\mathbb{R}^{128}$ where distances directly correspond to a measure of face similarity. They use a triplet loss function. The triplet is (face of person A, other face of person A, face of person which is not A). Later, this is called (anchor, positive, negative). The loss function is learned and inspired by LMNN. The idea is to minimize the distance between the two images of the same person and maximize the distance to the other persons image. ## LMNN Large Margin Nearest Neighbor (LMNN) is learning a pseudometric $$d(x, y) = (x y) M (x y)^T$$ where $M$ is a positivedefinite matrix. The only difference between a pseudometric and a metric is that $d(x, y) = 0 \Leftrightarrow x = y$ does not hold. ## Curriculum Learning: Triplet selection Show simple examples first, then increase the difficulty. This is done by selecting the triplets. They use the triplets which are *hard*. For the positive example, this means the distance between the anchor and the positive example is high. For the negative example this means the distance between the anchor and the negative example is low. They want to have $$f(x_i^a)  f(x_i^p)_2^2 + \alpha < f(x_i^a)  f(x_i^n)_2^2$$ where $\alpha$ is a margin and $x_i^a$ is the anchor, $x_i^p$ is the positive face example and $x_i^n$ is the negative example. They increase $\alpha$ over time. It is crucial that $f$ maps the images not in the complete $\mathbb{R}^{128}$, but on the unit sphere. Otherwise one could double $\alpha$ by simply making $f' = 2 \cdot f$. ## Tasks * **Face verification**: Is this the same person? * **Face recognition**: Who is this person? ## Datasets * 99.63% accuracy on Labeled FAces in the Wild (LFW) * 95.12% accuracy on YouTube Faces DB ## Network Two models are evaluated: The [Zeiler & Fergus model](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/ZeilerF13) and an architecture based on the [Inception model](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=journals/corr/SzegedyLJSRAEVR14). ## See also * [DeepFace](http://www.shortscience.org/paper?bibtexKey=conf/cvpr/TaigmanYRW14#martinthoma) 