Are Sixteen Heads Really Better than One? Are Sixteen Heads Really Better than One?
Paper summary In the last two years, the Transformer architecture has taken over the worlds of language modeling and machine translation. The central idea of Transformers is to use self-attention to aggregate information from variable-length sequences, a task for which Recurrent Neural Networks had previously been the most common choice. Beyond that central structural change, one more nuanced change was from having a single attention mechanism on a given layer (with a single set of query, key, and value weights) to having multiple attention heads, each with their own set of weights. The change was framed as being conceptually analogous to the value of having multiple feature dimensions, each of which focuses on a different aspect of input; these multiple heads could now specialize and perform different weighted sums over input based on their specialized function. This paper performs an experimental probe into the value of the various attention heads at test time, and tries a number of different pruning tests across both machine translation and language modeling architectures to see their impact on performance. In their first ablation experiment, they test the effect of removing (that is, zero-masking the contribution of) a single head from a single attention layer, and find that in almost all cases (88 out of 96) there's no statistically significant drop in performance. Pushing beyond this, they ask what happens if, in a given layer, they remove all heads but the one that was seen to be most important in the single head tests (the head that, if masked, caused the largest performance drop). This definitely leads to more performance degradation than the removal of single heads, but the degradation is less than might be intuitively expected, and is often also not statistically significant. This also shows an interesting distribution over where performance drops: in machine translation, it seems like decoder-decoder attention is the least sensitive to heads being pruned, and encoder-decoder attention is the most sensitive, with a very dramatic performance dropoff observed if particularly the last layer of encoder-decoder attention is stripped to a single head. This is interesting to me insofar as it shows the intuitive roots of attention in these architectures; attention was originally used in encoder-decoder parts of models to solve problems of pulling out information in a source sentence at the time it's needed in the target sentence, and this result suggests that a lot of the value of multiple heads in translation came from making that mechanism more expressive. Finally, the authors performed an iterative pruning test, where they ordered all the heads in the network according to their single-head importance, and pruned starting with the least important. Similar to the results above, they find that drops in performance at high rates of pruning happen eventually to all parts of the model, but that encoder-decoder attention suffers more quickly and more dramatically if heads are removed. Overall, this is a clean and straightforward empirical paper that asks a fairly narrow question and generates some interesting findings through that question. These results seem reminiscent to me of the Lottery Ticket Hypothesis line of work, where it seems that having a network with a lot of weights is useful for training insofar as it gives you more chances at an initialization that allows for learning, but that at test time, only a small percentage of the weights have ultimately become important, and the rest can be pruned. In order to make the comparison more robust, I'd be interested to see work that does more specific testing of the number of heads required for good performance during training and also during testing, divided out by different areas of the network. (Also, possibly this work exists and I haven't found it!)
Are Sixteen Heads Really Better than One?
Michel, Paul and Levy, Omer and Neubig, Graham
arXiv e-Print archive - 2019 via Local Bibsonomy
Keywords: dblp

Summary by CodyWild 1 year ago
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