Explanations can be manipulated and geometry is to blame Explanations can be manipulated and geometry is to blame
Paper summary In response to increasing calls for ways to explain and interpret the predictions of neural networks, one major genre of explanation has been the construction of salience maps for image-based tasks. These maps assign a relevance or saliency score to every pixel in the image, according to various criteria by which the value of a pixel can be said to have influenced the final prediction of the network. This paper is an interesting blend of ideas from the saliency mapping literature with ones from adversarial examples: it essentially shows that you can create adversarial examples whose goal isn't to change the output of a classifier, but instead to keep the output of the classifier fixed, but radically change the explanation (their term for the previously-described pixel saliency map that results from various explanation-finding methods) to resemble some desired target explanation. This is basically a targeted adversarial example, but targeting a different property of the network (the calculated explanation) while keeping an additional one fixed (keeping the output of the original network close to the original output, as well as keeping the input image itself in a norm ball around the original image. This is done in a pretty standard way: by just defining a loss function incentivizing closeness to the original output and also closeness of the explanation to the desired target, and performing gradient descent to modify pixels until this loss was low. https://i.imgur.com/N9uReoJ.png The authors do a decent job of showing such targeted perturbations are possible: by my assessment of their results their strongest successes at inducing an actual targeted explanation are with Layerwise Relevance Propogation and Pattern Attribution (two of the 6 tested explanation methods). With the other methods, I definitely buy that they're able to induce an explanation that's very unlike the true/original explanation, but it's not as clear they can reach an arbitrary target. This is a bit of squinting, but it seems like they have more success in influencing propogation methods (where the effect size of the output is propogated backwards through the network, accounting for ReLus) than they do with gradient ones (where you're simply looking at the gradient of the output class w.r.t each pixel. In the theory section of the paper, the authors do a bit of differential geometry that I'll be up front and say I did not have the niche knowledge to follow, but which essentially argues that the manipulability of an explanation has to do with the curvature of the output manifold for a constant output. That is to say: how much can you induce a large change in the gradient of the output, while moving a small distance along the manifold of a constant output value. They then go on to argue that ReLU activations, because they are by definition discontinuous, induce sharp changes in gradient for points nearby one another, and this increase the ability for networks to be manipulated. They propose a softplus activation instead, where instead of a sharp discontinuity, the ReLU shape becomes more curved, and show relatively convincingly that at low values of Beta (more curved) you can mostly eliminate the ability of a perturbation to induce an adversarially targeted explanation. https://i.imgur.com/Fwu3PXi.png For all that I didn't have a completely solid grasp of some of the theory sections here, I think this is a neat proof of concept paper in showing that neural networks can be small-perturbation fragile on a lot of different axes: we've known this for a while in the area of adversarial examples, but this is a neat generalization of that fact to a new area.

Summary by CodyWild 2 weeks ago
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